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Giuseppe Palizzi

for Theresa Picone Petrusa
PALIZZI, Giuseppe. - Son of Antonio and Doralice the Greek, elder brother of painter Filippo Nicola and Francesco Paolo, born in Lanciano, Abruzzo, 19 March 1812.

Initiated by his father to study the case, the left in 1835 and moved to Naples to study painting. Thanks to an alert of Interior Minister Nicola Santangelo to Director of Real Institute of Arts Antonio Niccolini, obtained dispensation age and was admitted between pupils regular Institute, with the chance to compete to awards of encouragement. He began to follow first courses Antonie Sminck Pitloo, then, after his death in 1837, those of Gabriele Smargiassi while attending privately also atelier SALVATORE FERGOLA. Came so much of the landscaping Posillipo school, as the historic landscape back in fashion in Italy thanks to Massimo d'Azeglio, followed early in Naples Beniamino De Francesco with whom Palizzi formed a solid and lasting friendship. In 1838 he painted The evening Angelus (Vasto, Pinacoteca Civica).

Participated in various Biennials Bourbon: in 1837 with a view of the hill 'Garages and Lake Agnano holding ancient bridge of Agnano over solfatara (silver medal of the class), acquired by King; in 1839 with a historic landscape today dispersed, Maremma or Pia de 'Tolomei (out of print), which obtained the silver medal of II class.

The painting, which addressed a romantic theme adapted from a novel by Bartolomeo Sestini, was described by Pasquale Stanislao Mancini (1839) and was appreciated for its "pitch melancholy, sad 'also by Domenico Morelli ([1901], in Morelli - Dalbono, 1915, p. 12).

In 1841 he took part with the Bourbon Exposition dream fratricidal Cain (Naples, Gallery Academy of Fine Arts) and the rate that meets the bandit Marco Sciarra, considered dispersed by Amalia Mezzetti (1955, n. 3, p. 255, n. 28), but identified with certainty among the paintings of the Prefecture of Naples, with a precise description of the document (fur coat, 1841, pp. 115-117); the work was presented outside the catalog and acquired by King with a Landscape with rustic house (Naples, Capodimonte Museum).

Relations with the environment Academy gradually worsened until reaching a breaking point; in particular had become particularly difficult with Gabriele Smargiassi, original too, as family Palizzi Vasto and divided by this, notes sympathies Carbonari, besides jealousy craft, for political reasons. This situation led to Giuseppe determination to leave for Paris, following in the footsteps of Benjamin Francis, with whom probably shared his first atelier in Paris 27 Avenue de Clichy until 1851; April 1844 his brother Philip accompanied boarding for Marseille, where he went for the French capital that hit him for his size metro.

Attended for some time the father of Constant Troyon, then settled in Passy, ​​near the forest of Fontainebleau, favorite at that time by various painters of the Barbizon school, Théodore Rousseau, Charles Dupre, Charles-Francois Daubigny, Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña, Rosa Bonheur, Charles Jacques, which was influenced by and which balances established friendships. As is also remembered by brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt (Journal des Goncourt. Memoires de la vie littéraire 1851/1896, Paris 1989, pp. 56, 151, 983 s., 991, 994; II, pp. 916, 1079), it was now integrated into Parisian intellectual. The turning point in his painting was already evident in the work of 1845, Gypsy Encampment (Florence, Pitti Palace), perhaps identifiable with Painting Interior forest, exhibited at the Salon of 1845 together with storm in a pine des Abruzzo.

From Paris occasionally made short bets in Italy, as is clear from the letters of brothers Palizzi (Vasto, Library Gabriel Rossetti, Correspondence palizziano) and some work with the indication of the place of execution (Pastoral, Florence 1866, already Galleria Pisani): stay short took place precisely in 1845, another in 1854, then in 1856 (Rome and Naples), in 1859 (when he painted Buffalo on the plain of Paestum, of which there is a replica of Christ at the Galleria dell 'Accademia di belle Arti di Napoli), perhaps between 1861 and 1863, certainly in 1866 (Rome, Florence and Turin), in 1870 and again in August 1878.

In December 1846, Joseph wrote to Philip begging send studies of animals in various positions and well designed as anatomy, with the intention to copy them under that was probably made in view of the Salon, where in 1847 he exposed Chèvres and Father.

They were years of intense study in Nature, even at the cost of a life of hardship. In companies Paris was known as "the Sylvain de Fontainebleau" (Endel, 1889), as had been allowed to build a 'James' in the forest to take shelter in case of bad weather or rest without departing from places natural object of his studies. The forest of Fontainebleau is the protagonist of many of his works, as studies in the forest of Fontainebleau, Interior forest of Fontainebleau (with white horse and cart), Forest of Fontainebleau with a group of cows, interrupted the sermon, to work late 1886, with loggers Forest (all at the Gallery of fine arts Academy of Naples).

France gradually managed to assert itself thanks to purchases and official committees and its success was also confirmed by the interest from various collectors, as the family D'Atri who lived in Paris and had several of his paintings (Mezzetti, 1955).

In 1848 its assimilation group of painters Barbizon was a fait accompli, to the point that Charles Blanc in person, director of the Department of Visual Arts of the Ministry of Interior from 1848 to 1850, and protector of barbizonniers, he worked for the State French acquire for 1500 francs the Chevreuse, designed the Museum of Autun (Paris, Archives nationales, F. 21/49, f. 3), exposed, along with La Vallée de Gragnano Pâtre gardant ses chèvres, the Salon of 1848 where Joseph was awarded a gold medal of II class. With Blanc entertained a brief correspondence in order to get an advance on the sum agreed to face a trip to Asia, which in fact did not happen. From 1849 he was allowed to participate in the Company without being subject to a jury.

Salon in 1850 presented four paintings: Retour de la foire; Chèvres sur les trois des Abruzzo mountains; Petit troupeau de chèvres; Après la pluie, point. At the Salon of 1851 was purchased by the State Le retour du marche (1500 francs; now Langres, Musée d'art et d'histoire); Salon in 1852 was bought the painting Des BELIERS (1500 francs Embassy in Bern and then from 1984 Paris, Musée d'Orsay), while Le printemps was bought by Duke Charles de Morny, and is not clear as to be received Louvre, where they spent the Musée d'Orsay. At the Salon of 1853 he exhibited La rentrée des Cows.


At Universal Exposition of 1855 participated with four works: One vintage chèvres (already Rome, Franco Russo collection); Cows in the Cave, Italy; Charbonniere in the forest of Fontainebleau and Charbonniere in the Fontainebleau forest, ânes.

There are references to the name of Gustave Courbet in letters and writings palizziani; However it would be strange if the Palizzi brothers had not visited the resounding Pavillon du réalisme, set up by the painter in front of a Universal Exposition of inputs; in fact you can feel the echo Courbet painting works of Giuseppe Palizzi as Herculaneum and the workshop of a carpenter (Naples, respectively in Pilot collection and Accademia Gallery of Fine Arts, both exhibited in the show 'art in the life of Southern Italy, held in Rome in 1953 in the Palazzo delle Esposizioni), dated by some historians, without references documentary, 1854 (Savastano, 1999), but probably subsequent to 1855.

In February 1856 was commissioned by the French State, the price of 2000 francs each, two paintings, Les BELIERS de Rambouillet and Les moutons et les brebis de Rambouillet (Correspondence palizziano, c. 264), and to this end was put to provides a housing estate in imperial Rambouillet. For these works, that the express request of the buyer were to measure twice and sketches that were completed in 1857, at the time of the purchase warrant, in April 1856, the price was doubled; two paintings, which were exhibited together with other three paintings at the Salon of 1857, were intended to Museum Antoine Vivenel Compiègne (Paris, Archives Nationales, F. 21/101, ff. 17, 18, 19, 20) and then exposed exhibition Bergers et moutons en Beauce in the painting in the nineteenth century to the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon de Chartres (1979). Those documents show that Joseph from 1851 resided in Paris rue Pierre Fontaine 7. Another State purchase French francs for 2000 (Correspondence palizziano, c. 282) about the painting La traite des veaux in the valley of the Touques, Normandy , exhibited in the Salon of 1859 and intended to Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon Rouen (Paris, Archives nationales, F. 21 / 4909B, f. 10; this work was preserved in a comp Cream, the collection Stramezzi: Mezzetti, 1955, n. 4, p. 338). Just in 1859 by decree of July 12 Joseph got in the important official recognition of the Legion of Honor. He was an established artist and wealthy, with a studio in a stylish chalet in Amsterdam street near the house of Alexandre Dumas (Aldini, 1859). In 1860 by decree of 9 January was appointed Francesco II of Bourbon corresponding member of Real Company Bourbon Naples. In 1861 he exhibited at the Salon des paintings Les ruins temples of Paestum, retour de chasse and Foret.

After the unit enrolled since 1862 the Promoter of Fine Arts of Naples, but never expose its exhibitions. With the advent of Savoy obtained also by the new king public recognition with the appointment before the rider and then to the Official Agency. Maurice and Lazarus (respectively with r.d. of 17 June 1862 and with r.d. of 19 July 1867). Meanwhile his presence to Trade Parisians still be fairly constant: in 1863 he exhibited Les ânes and two paintings of 1857, which had been commissioned for the Museum of Compiègne, with titles BELIERS. The Normandie eMoutons (Paris, Archives Nationales, F. 21/101, ff. 19 and 20); in 1864 was among the exhibitors with Troupeau boeufs Chasses de par l'orage dans les Landes des Abruzzo, Italy and Hautes futaies; in 1866 was present with a fair day in Château Landon; in the Salon of 1867 showed Moutons and the sea-au-diable in Fontainebleau. The 1867 was also the year of the Universal Exposition in Paris, where Joseph was responsible to the Commission for real sort of Italian section. In this exhibition also participated as an exhibitor, presenting six paintings including Ouragan in Les Marais des Abruzzo Citérieures surprenant a tribu de boeufs, Bamboo and The Pony petite cabane. In 1868 intervened with the Salon Paysage avec chèvres. Surroundings of Naples, which was bought by the State for 2000 francs (Correspondence palizziano, c. 319; Paris, Archives Nationales, F. 21/169, F.4) and intended first to Palais des Champs-Élysées, then the Museums Impériaux . After you recorded the presence of Giuseppe Palizzi all Trade from 1869 to 1881, except in 1871, the year of the Franco-Prussian war. In 1873 the painting was bought in Buffalo campaign Paestum for Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon Beziers.

In 1877 introduced the National Exhibition of Naples Forest of Fontainebleau, purchased by the State (then for the National Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art of Rome) and for which he was awarded the first prize. In December 1878 he was awarded a diploma of Commander Order of the Crown of Italy. In 1882 he exhibited at the Salon of the entrance and a clairière Auvergne, effet de neige (already Naples, Morano collection).

This painting, which is two men and a woman descended while riding donkeys from a mountain road in the snow, was exposed titled Montmartre in that show art in life in southern Italy.

Probably to 1882 may refer an important painting, Women carrying bundles. Forest of Fontainebleau, which denounced the effort of working farmer who weighed even on women and, for this reason, could have influenced Teofilo Patini and in particular of work as beasts of burden (1886).

He returned to participate in the Salon in 1883 (with Interior bergerie), in 1884 (with The grazing), in 1885 (with Le Soir Dans the mountains), in 1886 (with the sea concerns, forest Fontainebleau) and the ' last time in 1887 (with The lancerd'une du pays). From a letter of April 1884 (publ. In Hooks, 1989, p. 40) we learn that the following May that year he made a trip to Geneva.

In 1887 acquired, restructured and enriched with a garden Marlotte that otherwise could enjoy touring, as the end of that year he became seriously ill and there, on 1 January 1888, died, assisted by his brother Philip.

After his death Philip put for sale the most good brother, including the house, furniture and antique furnishings. The works of Joseph went Hôtel Drouot auction. Those who turned unsold were sent to Naples.

During his life Giuseppe Palizzi was a constant point of reference for most painters Neapolitans and Italians in general who went to France. Was also in contact with various French artists and intellectuals in particular was a friend of Goncourt brothers and the famous photographer Paul Nadar (pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon). Relations with Nadar - both Joseph and Filippo Palizzi - were pretty close: Joseph gave a painting Nadar (Picone Petrusa, 1992, p. 33) and these drew Joseph photograph, while Giuseppe in letters exchanged called him sometimes affectionately Paoluccio (Correspondence Nadar-brothers Palizzi, NAF 24280. 7485, f. 538). Joseph had relations also with Édouard Manet, who had promised the buyers and which in 1872 left the studio that had thick (letter of 5 March 1872, Paris, Bibliothèque d'art et d'archéologie, Fond Doucet, Carton 59 III).

Brother Philip was held in high esteem, so that gave him the distinction of being the true innovator of landscape painting, as we learn from a letter of Philip Prince Gaetano Filangieri junior, written during the donation Portrait of Giuseppe Palizzi , owned the painter, the Filangieri Museum.

source Giuseppe Palizzi

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