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Three techniques of oil painting

The development process of oil painting techniques has experienced several periods of classical, modern, and modern times. The oil paintings of each period have different appearances because of the control of the artistic thoughts of Dan and the limitations of techniques.

After a long period of development, the coloring techniques of oil painting gradually formed the following three types:

First, direct coloring method. That is, after the outline of an object shape is created on the oil painting canvas, the color of the object image or the concept of the color of the oil painting is laid out in color. Basically, the drawing is finished once. The incorrect position is scraped with a drawing knife and then the color adjustment is continued. Each paint in this painting method is thicker, has higher color saturation, and has a clearer stroke, making it easier to express vivid feelings when painting. Many artists after the middle of the 19th century used this method more. In order to make the color layer full after a coloring effect, we must pay attention to the use of gestures that are applied, the common coating method is divided into flat coating, loose coating and thick coating. Flat coating is the use of a one-way intensity, uniform strokes painted into a large area of ​​color, suitable for the formation of a static body in a stable, stable composition; scattered coating refers to the natural twist of the body according to the painting trend, stroke comparison Loose and flexible; thick coating is full or partial thick heap pigments, some form color layers or color blocks of up to several millimeters, so that the pigment shows the texture of the fun, the image has also been strengthened. As an artistic language, oil painting includes various modeling factors such as color, light and darkness, lines, texture, strokes, texture, light perception, space, and composition. The role of character oil painting techniques is to comprehensively or emphasizing individual modeling factors. Out of this, the performance of the oil painting material fully provides the possibility of applying oil painting techniques on the second plane surface. The production process of oil painting is the artist's creative process of consciously mastering oil painting materials and selecting and applying techniques that can express art ideas and form artistic images. Still life oil painting works not only expressed the ideological content given by the artist, but also demonstrated the unique beauty of the oil painting language - painting.
Romero Britto

Second, multi-level coloring method. When painting, first draw the appearance of the body with a single color, and then use multi-level color modeling, the dark part is often painted thin, the middle tone and the bright part are thickly painted, or covered or left to form a contrast of color blocks. Because of the difference in thickness, it shows the richness and texture of color. There are no strict differences between the two methods of transparency and opacity. Artists often use them in one painting. When the object is in the shade or in the shade, the transparent overlay method can produce a stable, deep sense of volume and space; the opaque overlay method is easy to shape the body outside the dark part, increasing the saturation of the picture color. Most of the artists of the 19th century used the two methods of painting. The time for producing the works was generally longer, and some paintings were completed after a long period of time, until the color layer is completely dry before rendering.

L.A. CAT 1995
Third, the transparent coating method, which uses a pigment that is not diluted with white but is diluted with a coloring oil, is multi-layered. After each layer is dried, the next layer must be colored. Since the color of each layer is thinner, the color of the lower layer can be revealed vaguely, forming subtle tones with the color of the upper layer. For example, applying a solid blue color to a crimson color layer will produce a rich effect of purple in the blue, that is, a warmth in the cold, which is often a hue that cannot be drawn on the palette. This style of painting is suitable for expressing the texture and sense of solidity of an object. It can vividly and vividly describe the delicate color change of human skin, and it feels that blood flows under the epidermis of the skin. Its disadvantages are narrow color gamut, elaborate production process, and long time to complete the work, which is not easy to express the artist's immediate artistic creation emotion.

Untitled II


On the canvas, Madonna, and in her life - a courtesan: who was Raphael's muse in fact?

Margarita Luti - the muse of the artist Raphael Santi



Margarita Luti is the muse of Raphael Santi. Her image is imprinted on many canvases by the artist

Sistine Madonna - one of the most famous images in the history of world painting. A spiritualized maiden with a baby in her arms is an ideal woman who, it would seem, is unattainable. However, the more beautiful the creation, the more interesting it is to learn about its terrestrial prototype. Raphael's muse was Margarita Luti, the daughter of a simple baker, who was not at all angelic in character ...



The captivating image of Margarita Luti

Margarita Luti - a simple peasant girl, who could not even dream about the fate that was for her. At the age of 17, she planned to marry a local shepherd Tomaso Chinelli, and it would surely have happened if she had once met Rafael Santi by accident, walking in a park. The artist was looking for a model for the picture "Cupid and Psyche," and one glance at the charming face of Margarita Luti was enough to understand: before him appeared an unearthly beauty.


Margarita Luti won the fame of the most famous courtesan of Rome

On a bold proposal to pose Luti agreed, a little pause. Her father's permission was received for several dozen gold coins, and Margarita herself returned on the first evening from the artist with a luxurious gold necklace. Rafael was ready to present his beloved with expensive gifts, cherish and enjoy her beauty. Margarita turned his head, and she herself plunged into a luxurious life, which could only be dreamed of.


Margarita Luti - the muse of Raphael Santi

Forgotten in luxury and magnificence, the girl suddenly realized how many rich and noble men around her. Some seemed even more attractive to her than Raphael. The artist wrote for the "Cupid and Psyche" picture for the banker Agostino Chigi, and the 17-year-old "Psyche", enjoying a lot of love with Santi, rushed into the arms of Kigi himself. It was he, drugged by her youth, imprisoned in the monastery of Tomaso Cinelli, so that the naive shepherd would not pester the beloved with persecution.


Margarita Luti - the muse of Raphael Santi

Rumor attributed to Margarita another tragic love story: ostensibly, among her admirers was one of the pupils of Raphael, Carlo Tirabacci. For his passion, the young man paid with his life - was stabbed in a duel with his "colleague in the shop." From Raphael, the real reason for the fight was hidden, although it's hard to believe that he did not know about the adventures of his muse. She often did not spend the night at home, and Raphael in impotent rage just wrote her portraits, splashing out all her feelings on the canvas.


 Rafael Santi. Sistine Madonna

Rafael worshiped Marguerite for the rest of his life. It was she who became the prototype of the image of the Sistine Madonna. The daughter of a simple baker, or, as she was called by the maestro, "fornarina," earned her bad reputation as a courtesan. It was rumored that her rampant life ruined Raphael's health and caused his early departure (the artist died at the age of 37 on his birthday). Despite the fact that the artist left her a legacy of a decent condition, Margarita did not change her way of life and continued to turn novels with the rich. When Tomaso came out of the monastery, even tried to hint to him that the feelings are still alive, but the prisoner just threw a handful of earth in her face as a sign of contempt.


Raphael. Madonna della seggiola.
Rafael Santi. "Madonna in the chair."

Margarita Luti was one of those women who were endowed with an attractive appearance, but she hardly understood, next to what genius she had lived.


Arshile Gorky art